After just a single lucky encounter in 2015, when I spotted a pair ovipositing amidst several Lesser Emperors, in 2017 I found swarms of Vagrant Emperors at the Parque Natural del Hondo just south of Alicante. These provided some good opportunities for flight shots. I still haven’t seen a settled Vagrant. 😉
Speaking now from personal experience, it is quite easy to confuse A. parthenope and A. ephippiger since both males have a distinctive “blue saddle” at S2. Eye colour and the pattern of the thorax side distinguish them but care is necessary.
- brown eyes (A. parthenope has green eyes)
- ♂ blue saddle on S2 (does not extend into S3 as in A. parthenope)
- ♂ 2-tone side of thorax, split horizontally, brown above, greenish-yellow below
- ♂ pairs of pale brown spots on S8-10