There are four Demoiselle species in the European theatre, five if we include Calopteryx exul in North Africa and, who knows, given the northerly migrations that we are seeing, it may make the jump. However, both C. haemorrhoidalis and C. exul are less confusing so my comparison chart restricts itself to the three potentially more readily confused species.
The females can be particularly tricky and the word “normally” becomes necessary. 😯 Their wing coloration is usually sufficient but is not faultless. The positioning of the pseudo-pterostigma, a.k.a. wing spot, varies and can clarify the issue but even then, there is some overlap so it isn’t always diagnostic.
[If this proves difficult to read, click to open a larger image.]